Second Temple


With the fall of Babylon, the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great allowed the Jews to return to the Land of Israel, beginning in 538. A rebuilt temple was dedicated in 515 B.C.E. – a little-known precursor to the grand structure called Herod’s Temple.

That Second Temple was an expanded and significantly upgraded structure whose construction was led by the half-Jewish, half-Edumean Herod, the Roman-appointed king of Judea who died in 4 B.C.E. 

So the priests (kohen) , and the Levite , and some of the people, and the singers, and the porters, and the Nethinims, dwelt in their cities, and all Israel in their cities

 בְּנֵיהַֿלְוִיִּם levite 1 Chronicles 15:15 (bearing ark), 1 Chronicles 24:30 (tribal designation). — 


נְתִינִים noun masculine plural Nethinim(properly those given to the service of the sanctuary, as Levites are calledנְתוּנִים Numbers 3:9Numbers 8:16,19); — only 1 Chronicles 9:2 (where distinguished from priests and Levites) 

And when the seventh month was come, and the children of Israel were in the cities, the people gathered themselves together as one man to Jerusalem. 

2Then stood up : 

  • Jeshua the son of Jozadak, 
  • and his brethren the priests, 
  • and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, 
  • and his brethren, 

    it is written in the law of Moses the man of God.3And they set the altar upon his bases; for fear was upon them because of the people of those countries: 

    • and they offered burnt offerings thereon unto the LORD, even burnt offerings morning and evening. 
    • 4They kept also the feast of tabernacles, as it is written, 
    • and offeredthe daily burnt offerings by number, according to the custom, as the duty of every day required; 
    • 5And afterwardoffered the continual burnt offering, both of the new moons, and of all the set feasts of the LORD that were consecrated, and of every one that willingly offered a freewill offering unto the LORD. 


    From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt offerings unto the LORD. But the foundation of the temple of the LORD was not yet laid. 7They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of Persia.


    Now in the second year of their coming unto the house of God at Jerusalem, in the second month

    began Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and the remnant of their brethren the priests and the Levites, and all they that were come out of the captivity unto Jerusalem; and appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to set forward the work of the house of the LORD. 

    • 9Then stood Jeshua with his sons and his brethren, 
    • Kadmiel and his sons, the sons of Judah, together, to set forward the workmen in the house of God:
    •  the sons of Henadadwith their sons and their brethren the Levites.

    And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the LORD, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the LORD, after the ordinance of David king of Israel. 

    11And they sang together by course in praising and giving thanks unto the LORD; because he is good, for his mercy endureth for ever toward Israel. And all the people shouted with a great shout, when they praised the LORD, because the foundation of the house of the LORD was laid. 12But many of the priests and Levites and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, that had seen the first house, when the foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice; and many shouted aloud for joy:13So that the people could not discern the noise of the shout of joy from the noise of the weeping of the people: for the people shouted with a loud shout, and the noise was heard afar off.

    North is at the top of the map. The Mount of Olives is on the far right, Mount Zion on the left. Mount Moriah rises as a long ridge at the south end of the City of David and continues on past the present Temple Mount, and reaches its highest point outside the Northern walls of the Old City, at the top of the map.


    In the seventh month, in the one and twentieth day of the month, came the word of the LORD by the prophet Haggai, saying, 2Speak now to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, and to the residue of the people, saying, 3Whois left among you that saw this house in her first glory? and how do ye see it now? is it not in your eyes in comparison of it as nothing? 4Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel, saith the LORD; and be strong, O Joshua, son of Josedech, the high priest; and be strong, all ye people of the land, saith the LORD, and work: for I am with you, saith the LORD of hosts: 5According tothe word that I covenanted with you when ye came out of Egypt, so my spirit remaineth among you: fear ye not. 6For thus saith the LORD of hosts; Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land7And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come: and I will fill this house with glory, saith the LORD of hosts. 8The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the LORD of hosts. 9The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the LORD of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the LORD of hosts.

    Solomon’s Temple called by the Jews, the “First Temple” was destroyed by the siege of Nebuchadnezzar and the armies of Babylon on the 9th of Av in 586 BC. Some seventy years later, approximately, Jewish exiles were allowed to return to Jerusalem to build an altar, the “Second” Jewish temple, and finally the walls of the city. Although modest in comparison to the First Temple, the Second Temple was later greatly enlarged and expanded by Herod the Great. 

    Fort Antony, where the current Done of the Rock stands, connected to the Temple mount with a causeway.

    This latter temple was the Temple in which Jesus was dedicated, and where He taught and cast out the money changers on two occasions.

    But the now-magnificent Second Temple was destroyed by General Titus and besieging Roman armies on the 9th of Av in AD 70. This destruction had been predicted by Jesus earlier (see Matthew 24, Luke 21)

    After two violent wars with Rome, the City of David was so completely destroyed that it could not be recognized as a city. The Roman emperor Hadrian decreed that it would be used as an area where the Upper City could dump trash and garbage. It continued in that condition for hundreds of years. The Upper City developed, and people forgot what a marvelous little city this had once been. They simply guessed where strategic locations in the City of David must have been in the Upper City. Of course, this was a normal mistake.

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    First temple : Solomon 


    18And Gad came that day to David, and said unto him, Go up, rear an altar unto the LORD in the threshingfloor of Araunah the Jebusite.

    24And the king said unto Araunah, Nay; but I will surely buy it of thee at a price: neither will I offer burnt offerings unto the LORD my God of that which doth cost me nothing. So David bought the threshingfloor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver. 25And David built there an altar unto the LORD, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings. 

    25So David gave to Ornan for the place six hundred shekels of gold by weight. 26And David built there an altar unto the LORD, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, and called upon the LORD

    The price of Araunah’s threshing floor, where David offered his sacrifices, was only fifty shekels of silver for the threshing for and the oxen. However, David (possibly later) paid Araunah (also called Ornan) “six hundred shekels of gold” for his “place” (I Chronicles 21:25). This place evidently included all the grounds on which the magnificent temple of Solomon would eventually be built.

    1Then Solomon began to build the house of the LORD at Jerusalem in mount Moriah, where the LORDappeared unto David his father, in the place that David had prepared in the threshingfloor of Ornan the Jebusite.

    The land David chose, a threshing floor, was associated with Moriah, where the patriarch Abraham brought his son Isaac for sacrifice (Genesis 22:14). (In the Bible, the mount is also referred to as “Zion,” a name that eventually came to encompass the entire Land of Israel.)

    The land on which Solomon built the temple had been acquired by King David, Solomon’s father, who thought to build a grand temple himself. But the Lord, according to the biblical story, rejected David’s ambition because of the king’s sins and the job passed to the son. Mount Ophel, where the Spring of Siloam poured tons of water under the threshold of the temple every minute (Ezek 47:1), after which the water was distributed wherever it was needed. This marvelous little City of David was unique in having running water 3,000 years ago. Aristeas, Tacitus and 1 Enoch tell of the inexhaustible spring water system that was indescribably well developed, gushing tons of water into the temple area for sacrifices. Hezekiah’s tunnel directed water under Mount Ophel to the Pool of Siloam.

    Solomon’s Temple called by the Jews, the “First Temple” was destroyed by the siege of Nebuchadnezzar and the armies of Babylon on the 9th of Av in 586 BC

    Solomon’s Temple sustained several attacks by foreign powers before finally, in 586 B.C.E., being totally destroyed by the army of Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king. The residents of Judah were sent into a short-lived exile, in what is present-day Iraq.

    Pre-temple: tabernacle 


    And every wise hearted man among them that wrought the work of the tabernacle made ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work made he them. 9The length of one curtain was twenty and eight cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: the curtains were all of one size. 10And he coupled the five curtains one unto another: and the other five curtains he coupled one unto another. 11And he made loops of blue on the edge of one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling: likewise he made in the uttermost side of another curtain, in the coupling of the second. 12Fifty loops made he in one curtain, and fifty loops made he in the edge of the curtain which was in the coupling of the second: the loops held one curtain to another. 13And he made fifty taches of gold, and coupled the curtains one unto another with the taches: so it became one tabernacle.

    Goathland hair curtains 

    4And he made curtains of goats’ hairfor the tent over the tabernacle: eleven curtains he made them. 15The length of one curtain was thirty cubits, and four cubits was the breadth of one curtain: the eleven curtains were of one size.16And he coupled five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves. 17And he made fifty loops upon the uttermost edge of the curtain in the coupling, and fifty loops made he upon the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second. 18And he made fifty taches of brass to couple the tent together, that it might be one.

    Covering of skin 

    9And he made a covering for the tentof rams’ skins dyed red, and a coveringof badgers’ skins above that.

    The Boards and Sockets

    (Exodus 26:15-30)

    20And he made boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood, standing up. 21The length of a board was ten cubits, and the breadth of a board one cubit and a half. 22One board had two tenons, equally distant one from another: thus did he make for all the boards of the tabernacle. 23And he made boards for the tabernacle; twenty boards for the south side southward:24And forty sockets of silver he made under the twenty boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons. 25And for the other side of the tabernacle, which is toward the north corner, he made twenty boards,26And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board. 27And for the sides of the tabernacle westward he made six boards. 28And two boards made he for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides. 29And they were coupled beneath, and coupled together at the head thereof, to one ring: thus he did to both of them in both the corners. 30And there were eight boards; and their sockets were sixteen sockets of silver, under every board two sockets.

    The Bars

    31And he made bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle, 32And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the tabernacle for the sides westward. 33And he made the middle bar to shoot through the boards from the one end to the other. 34And he overlaid the boards with gold, and made their rings of gold to be places for the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold.

    The Veil

    (Exodus 26:31-35)

    35And he made a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: with cherubims made he it of cunning work. 36And he made thereunto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: their hooks were ofgold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver.

    The Curtain for the Door

    (Exodus 26:36-37)

    37And he made an hanging for the tabernacle door of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, of needlework; 38And the five pillars of it with their hooks: and he overlaid their chapiters and their fillets with gold: but their five sockets were of brass.

    Hay Jude! 

    Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.

     4For there are certain men (444 ánthrōpos – man, also the generic term for “mankind“; the human race; people, including women and men) crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained (progegrammenoi to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousnous (766 asélgeia (from aselgēs/“brutal”) – properly, violent spite which rejects restraint and indulges in lawless insolence (wanton caprice).)  and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.


    5I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, 

    1. how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not.
    2.  6And the angels( spiritual beings created by God to serve His plan.)  which kept not their first(ídios: personal)  estate ( arxḗ – properly, from the beginning (temporal sense), i.e. “the initial (starting) point) , but left their own habitation ( oikétérion: of the body as the dwelling-place of the spirit,)  he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. 
    3. 7Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh(héteros – another (of a different kind)(“another but distinct in kind“) (“another of a different quality“)not human  /sarkos properly, flesh (“carnal”)), are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.
    4. 8Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities. 


    Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee. 

    10But these speak evil of those things which they know not: but what they know naturally, as brute beasts, in those things they corrupt themselves. 

    11Woe unto them! 

    • for they have gone in the way of Cain
    • and ran greedily after the error of Balaam for reward, 
    • and perished in the gainsaying of Core.

    12These are spots in your feasts of charity, when they feast with you, feeding themselves without fear: 

    • clouds they are without water, carried about of winds; 
    • trees whose fruit withereth, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots; 
    • 13Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; 
    • wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.


    14And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, 15To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hardspeeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. 16These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having men’s persons in admiration because of advantage.

    Fallen angels on Earth preflood

    200 Watchers in Tartarus

    Nephilim = Angel / human or animal breed

    Hittite reliefs depicting lion men and Satyrs.

    Demon = foul spirit of a Nephilim that is killed

    New International Version
    “Just as it was in the days of Noah, so also will it be in the days of the Son of Man.Luke 17:26

    New International Version
    to those who were disobedient long ago when God waited patiently in the days of Noah while the ark was being built. In it only a few people, eight in all, were saved through water, 1 Peter 3:20

    Clones

    Frankenstein monster

    Possession of a body by demon spirits

    Third trumpet 

    And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; 

    These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;

    13I know thy works, 

    • and where thou dwellest, even where Satan‘s seat is
    • and thou holdest fast my name, 
    • and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth. 


    14But I have a few things against thee, 

    • because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam

    • who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, 

    • to eat things sacrificed unto idols,
    •  and to commit fornication. 
    • 15So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate. 

    Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth. 

    17He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.

    And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, 

    • burning as it were a lamp, 
    • and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, 
    • and upon the fountains of waters; 

    And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.

    Second trumpet

    8And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; 

    These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;

    9I know thy works, 

    • and tribulation
    • and poverty, (but thou art rich) and 
    • I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. 10Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; 

      and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. 

      11He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.

      And the second angel sounded, 

      and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea

      • and the third part of the sea became blood9
      • And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died
      • and the third part of the ships were destroyed

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        First trumpet 

        The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.

        Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; 

        These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;

        I know 

        • thy works, and 
        • thy labour, and 
        • thy patience, and 
        • how thou canst not bear them which are evil
        • and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:3

        And hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name’s sake hast laboured, and hast not fainted. 

        4Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love5Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent. 

        6But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. 

        The exact origin of the Nicolaitans is unclear. Some Bible commentators believe they were a heretical sect who followed the teachings of Nicolas—whose name means “one who conquers the people”—who was possibly one of the deacons of the early church mentioned in Acts 6:5. It is possible that Nicolas became an apostate, denying the true faith and became part of a group holding “the doctrine of Balaam,” who taught Israel “to sin by eating food sacrificed to idols and by committing sexual immorality.” Clement of Alexandria says, “They abandoned themselves to pleasure like goats, leading a life of self-indulgence.” Their teaching perverted grace and replaced liberty with license.

        Other commentators believe that these Nicolaitans were not so called from any man, but from the Greek word Nicolah, meaning “let us eat,” as they often encouraged each other to eat things offered to idols. Whichever theory is true, it is certain that the deeds of the Nicolaitans were an abomination to Christ. They, like the Gnostics and other false teachers, abused the doctrine of grace and tried to introduce licentiousness in its place (2 Peter 2:15, 19; Jude 1:4)

        7He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.

        7The first angel sounded, and there followed 

        • hail and 
        • fire mingled 
        • with blood
        • and they were cast upon the earth
        • and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.

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