Psalm 83 Berean Study Bible Par ▾ 

O God, Be Not Silent. A song. A Psalm of Asaph.

O God, be not silent; be not speechless;be not still, O God.

See how Your enemies rage, how Your foes have reared their heads.

With cunning they scheme against Your people and conspire against those You cherish, saying, “Come, let us erase them as a nation; may the name of Israel be remembered no more.”

For with one mind they plot together, they form an alliance against You—

  1. the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites,
  2. of Moab and the Hagrites,
  3. of Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek,
  4. of Philistia with the people of Tyre.
  5. Even Assyria has joined them, lending strength to the sons of Lot.


Do to them as You did to Midian, as to Sisera and Jabin at the River Kishon, who perished at Endor and became like dung on the ground.

Make their nobles like Oreb and Zeeb, and all their princes like Zebah and Zalmunna, who said, “Let us possess for ourselves the pastures of God.”

Make them like tumbleweed, O my God, like chaff before the wind.

As fire consumes a forest, as a flame sets the mountains ablaze, so pursue them with Your tempest, and terrify them with Your storm.

Cover their faces with shame, that they may seek Your name, O LORD.
  • May they be ever ashamed and terrified;

may they perish in disgrace.

  • May they know that You alone, whose name is the LORD, are Most High over all the earth.
  • Changes in the middle east…

    Ezekiel chapters 38-39 describes an invasion of Israel by the descendents of Japheth. This attack is a massive coalition of nations intent on destroying Israel.

    The Middle East

    Sons of Japheth

    The countries involved are (Biblical name in parenthesis): (Magog),  (Persia), (Meshech and Tubal),  (Gomer),  (Togarmah), Cush, and Put.

    Japheth: Notable for being the forefather of Gomer, Magog, Tubal, Meshech, & Torgamath, the tribes that make-up modern Turkey. However. ‘gog’ may refer to Georgia, a region near the Black Sea and Scythia.

    The Roman Jewish historian Josephus states in the Antiquities of the Jews, I.VI.122 (Whiston) that: Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais (Don), and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names.

    Taurus and Amanus mountains
    River Tanais in South Russia. It’s the spot where the Ancient Greeks established the town of Tanais. They built Tanais in what was nomadic Scythian territory

    Son of man, direct your face against Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince, leader of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy concerning him. Say: Thus said the Lord: Behold, I am against you, Gog, the prince, leader of Meshech and Tubal … Persia, Cush and Put will be with you … also Gomer with all its troops, and Beth Togarmah from the far north with all its troops—the many nations with you.”[20]

    Who is Tubal and Meshech?

    Georgian nationalist histories associated Japheth’s sons with certain ancient tribes of the Caucasus area, called Tubals (TabalsTibarenoi in Greek) and Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Moschoi in Greek), 

    Who is Gog and Magog?

    Among Muslim historians, Japheth is usually regarded as the ancestor of the Gog and Magog tribes, and, at times, of the TurksKhazars, and Slavs. A genetic study done in 2004 found that the Central Asian Uzbeks, Turkmen, and Shugnan tend to be closer related to popula-
    tions from the Anatolian/Caucasus/Iranian regions.

    The Scythians are generally believed to have been of Iranian origin. Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians. By the early Middle Ages, the Scythians had been largely assimilated and absorbed by early Slavs.

    In 2017, a genetic study of the Scythians suggested that the Scythians were ultimately descended from the Yamna culture, and emerged on the Pontic steppe independently of peoples belonging to Scythian cultures further east

    Contact between the near East, the Caucasus, the Steppe and central Europe is documented, both archaeologically and genetically, as early as the 5th millennium BC. This increased in the 4th millennium BCE along with the development of new technologies such as the wheel and wagon, copper alloys, new weaponry, and new breeds of domestic sheep. Such contact was critical in the cultural and genetic formation of the Yamnaya complex on the Eurasian Steppe—with about half of BA Steppe ancestry thought to derive from the Caucasus

    Khazaria included the geographic regions of southern Russia, northern Caucasus, eastern Ukraine, Crimea, western Kazakhstan, and northwestern Uzbekistan. The Khazars were a Turkic people who originated in Central Asia. The early Turkic tribes were quite diverse, although it is believed that reddish hair was predominant among them prior to the Mongol conquests.

    their motherland is the area of today’s Iran and northern India.The term “Slavs” designates an ethnic group of people who share a long-term cultural continuity and who speak a set of related languages known as the Slavic languages (all of which belong to the Indo-European language family). Slavs are a major portion of European inhabitants; one of every three Europeans is of Slavic origin. Little is known about the Slavs before they are mentioned in Byzantine records of the 6th century CE. Their motherland is the area of today’s Iran and northern India. Proto-Slavic people were already active by 1,500 BCE within an area that stretched roughly from western Poland to the Dnieper River in Belarus. Rather than having a centre of origin of the Slavic culture, it seems more reasonable to consider a wide territory in which a common cultural trait was shared by its inhabitants.the territory of the Slavs reached into the western region of Russia and the southern Russian steppes, where they came in contact with Iranian speaking groups. Slavic tribes belonged to the nations of Styte and Sarmatia, located north of the Black Sea by the Don, Dniester, Prut, and Danube Rivers (present-day Russia, Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria).

    Who was Gomer?

    The Bible states Gomer was a country found in the north. The Hebrew name Gomer refers to the Cimmerians, who dwelt in what is now southern Russia, “beyond the Caucusus”. Gimirra, who settled on the northern shores of the Baltic Sea

    In Islamic legends, Gomer is said to have reached the age of 1000, the oldest and unmatched age of a person in Torah. The tractate Yoma referred to him as the ancestor of the Gomermians, the present day Germans

    The Gauls and Celts of ancient times, and of more modern date, the Germans, French and British are descendants of Gomer. In the Talmud, Gomer is spoken of as Germani, that is, Germany. Germany was first called “The Land of Gomer” or Gomerland, and many old maps bear the name of Ashkenaz, one of the sons of Gomer. Other maps carry the name Gomer.

    Jewish sources in antiquity, such as Targum Yonathan, identify Gomer (a brother of Ashkenaz) with “Germania”, as Gomer (like Yavan) was associated with the Asian Minor territories. It obviously isn’t a great leap from Germania to Germany. It seems that the Ashkenaz of the Torah was identified with the territory called Scandia (the old name for Scandinavia, north of Germany) by an early date

    During the numerous wars fought between Rome and the Germans in the 1st century AD, enormous quantities of information about the Germans reached Rome, and, when Tacitus published in AD 98 the book now known as the Germania, he had reliable sources of information on which to draw.

    Tacitus relates that according to their ancient songs the Germans were descended from the three sons of Mannus(is this Noah? ), the son of the god Tuisto, the son of Earth(Adam?) . Hence they were divided into three groups—the Ingaevones(SHEM?) , the Herminones(HAM?) , and the Istaevones(JAPHETH?) —but the basis for this grouping is unknown (to Tacticus) . 

    Who is Togarmah?

    The descendants of Gomers’ son, Togarmah were depicted as dwelling in the “recesses” of the north. And they multiplied across the whole north up to Asia during the time of Ezekiel. They are believed to have occupied the lands to the north and west of Israel.

    The Armenians, a nation found in eastern Turkey, have long claimed that they are of the House of Togarmah. Armenians are dwellers in the Caucasus and the Armenian Highland.

    Who is Cush?

    Cush or Kush was, according to the Bible, the eldest son of Ham, a son of Noah. He was the brother of Canaan, Mizraim and Phut, and the father of the biblical Nimrod mentioned in the “Table of Nations” in Genesis 10:6 and I Chronicles 1:8. 

    Land of Cush—The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally applied to the countries south of the Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt (Ezek. 29:10, King James Version “Ethiopia,” Hebrew: Cush), with which it is generally associated (Psalm 68:31; Isaiah 18:1; Jeremiah 46:9, etc.).

    It stands also associated with Elam (Isaiah 11:11), with Persia (Ezek. 38:5), and with the Sabeans (Isaiah 45:14).

    From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red Sea.

    The ancient historian Herodotus wrote,

    For of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name of Cush; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Cushites. —Herotodus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.6)

    Ezekiel speaks (29:10; compare 30:4-6) of Cush as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now later known as Nubia (today central Sudan and southern Egypt) and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) (Isaiah 18:1; Zeph. 3:10, Hebrew: Cush). In ancient Egyptian inscriptions, Ethiopia is termed Kesh.

    Kush, also spelled Cush, the southern portion of the ancient region known as Nubia.

    Nubia, ancient region in northeastern Africa, extending approximately from the Nile River valley (near the first cataract in Upper Egypt) eastward to the shores of the Red Sea, southward to about Khartoum (in what is now Sudan), and westward to the Libyan Desert. Nubia is traditionally divided into two regions. The southern portion, which extended north to the southern end of the second cataract of the Nile was known as Upper Nubia; this was called Kush (Cush) under the 18th-dynasty pharaohs of ancient Egypt and was called Ethiopia by the ancient Greeks. Lower Nubia was the northern part of the region, located between the second and the first cataract of Aswān; this was called Wawat.

    Who is Phut?

    Third son of Ham, the name being also applied to his descendants, and to the district they inhabited (Gen. 10:6; 1 Chron. 1:8; Ezek. 27:10; Nah. 3:9). The land of Phut is generally supposed to be the same as Libya, in the N.W. of Egypt. A broken fragment of the annals of Nebuchadnezzar mentions “the city of Phut-Yavan,” or “Phut of the Ionians” (that is Greeks). This however may refer to a different people. The same Hebrew word is translated Libya (Ezek. 30:5; Ezek. 38:5); and Libyans (Jer. 46:9).

    Josephus writes: “Phut also was the founder of Libya, and called the inhabitants Phutites (Phoutes), from himself: there is also a river in the country of Moors which bears that name; whence it is that we may see the greatest part of the Grecian historiographers mention that river and the adjoining country by the appellation of Phut (Phoute): but the name it has now has been by change given it from one of the sons of Mezraim, who was called Lybyos.” (AotJ Book 1:6/2). Pliny the Elder Nat. Hist. 5.1 and Ptolemy Geog. iv.1.3 both place the river Phuth on the west side of Mauretania (modern Morocco). Ptolemy also mentions a city Putea in Libya (iv.3.39).

    Who is Persia?

    Persia, historic region of southwestern Asia associated with the area that is now modern Iran. The term Persia was used for centuries and originated from a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis, alternatively as Pārs or Parsa, modern Fārs. The use of the name was gradually extended by the ancient Greeks and other peoples to apply to the whole Iranian plateau. The people of that region have traditionally called their country Iran, “Land of the Aryans.”

    The players

    The countries involved are (Biblical name in parenthesis):Russia (Gomer and Magog), Iran (Persia), several of the smaller former Soviet states (Meshech and Tubal), Ukraine and Germany (Gomer), Turkey and Armenia (Togarmah), Ethiopia(Cush) , and Libya(Phut).

    Alliances in 2020

    Russia and Turkey are moving closer to a military alliance that was foretold in biblical prophecy.

    Syria and Iran are strategic allies. Syria is often called Iran’s “closest ally”, the Arab nationalism ideology of Syria’s ruling Baath party notwithstanding.

    Iran and Russia are strategic allies and form an axis in the Caucasus alongside Armenia. Iran and Russia are also military allies in the conflicts in Syria and Iraq and partners in Afghanistan and post-Soviet Central Asia.

    Egypt is the only Arab country without an embassy in Iran.

    The Ethiopian government’s relations with the U.S. and the West in general have been centered on military and economic cooperation. In addition, Ethiopia maintains diplomatic links with ChinaIsraelMexico and India, among other countries.

    IN LIBYA Turkish and Russian intervention poses obstacles to a political settlement. In negotiations, Libyan parties would demand that their adversaries’ backers withdraw foreign elements, including Russian and Syrian mercenaries, Emirati drones, Russian fighter jets, and Turkish military assets.

    The battle.

    I find the following very interesting. Sixth trumpet: This is the “second woe”, where four angels are released from their binds in the “great river Euphrates”. They command a force of two-hundred million mounted troops whose horses exude plagues of fire, smoke, and brimstone from their mouths.

    Could this be the battle of Ezekiel?

    An interesting fact about this battle is, if you look at a map, there is no mention of the nations bordering Israel – Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt

    Psalm 83 has Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the area of Gaza (Egypt is excluded), rising for the purpose to “cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance.”the result of the battle in Psalm 83 is absolute devastation. For those countries, but also for Israel.

    Ezekiel 38:9 talks about the invaders ascending like a storm and covering the land like a cloud. The number of troops must be overwhelming.

    During the invasion, there is a worldwide earthquake. While the mountains are crumbling around them, confusion and fear cause the armies to turn upon themselves (Ezekiel 38:20-21). God also sends giant hailstones mingled with fire and brimstone from the sky (Ezekiel 38:22).

    Eighty-four percent of Magog/Russia’s army dies on the battlefield. (Ezekiel 39:1-5).

    It will take seven months to bury the dead and seven years to clean up the mess (Ezekiel 39:9,12-13).

    What we watch in the book of Ezekiel, chapters 38 and 39, which is known as the ‘eschatological’ future war of Gog and Magog, is the Arab states being very calm and quiet towards Israel. (Abraham Accord) Israel (is) reconstructed, peaceful, prosperous, calm, secure and then a Russian-Iranian-Turkish alliance forming against Israel.” Messianic Jew and prophetic expert Joel Rosenberg

    Reference list




    Gomer Son of Japheth







    A Message to Ethiopia

    1Woe to the land shadowing (6767. tslatsal) with wings,

    Image: pixabay

    which is beyond(5676. eber) the rivers of Ethiopia:

    Sudan is to the west of Ethiopia

    2That sendeth ambassadors by the sea, even in vessels of bulrushes upon the waters, 


    saying, Go, ye swift messengers, to a nation scattered (pulled) and peeled(to make smooth?) , to a people terrible(feared) from their beginning hitherto; a nation meted out (powerful) and trodden down(treading down) , whose land the rivers have spoiled(cut through) !

    Go, swift messengers,

    to a people tall and smooth-skinned,

    to a people feared far and wide,

    an aggressive nation of strange speech,

    whose land is divided by rivers

    Horn of Africa. Ethiopia is known as the land of Kush in the Hebrew bible. The local people are tall and usually have a slender build

    The rivers are literally the affluents of the Nile that intersect and fertilise (not “spoil”) the hills and valleys of Nubia. There is not really any difference between Nubia and Kush. They are different names for the same thing. Nubia was the ancient land known as Kush in what is present-day Sudan. The ancient Land of Punt originally encompassed what is now known as Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia.

    Punt, also known as GOD’s LAND, the Ancient Egyptian name for the
    southern coastal region of the Red Sea (Ethiopia) probably extending
    into what is now Somalia

    Ethiopian highland groups formed the core of ancient Ethiopia. Groups like the Amhara, are likely an ancient stabilized hybrid population between a population from Arabia, and a local Sub-Saharan population like the Khoisan.

    The so called “Ethiopic” look isn’t only specific to ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa like the Afar, Oromos, Amhara, Tigrayans etc.The Somali people, who are part of that region, are also tall, relatively thin, and smooth skinned. 

    The so-called Ethiopian look is also known as the elongated type of Africans.
    Frequency and distribution of the Y-DNA marker E1b1b. Notice the very high concentration on the Horn.E1b1b most likely originated from a man living in the Horn of Africa. His descendants were most likely the ones behind the rise of the Afro-Asiatic language family, and from their hearth in Northeast Africa, they went north and west and east, spreading the expanse of the Afro-Asiatic languages, later giving rise to the Semitic and Egyptian languages in the Nile Delta/Middle East, and those that spread further west the Berber and Chadic languages. Those that stayed, however, developed into the Cushitic speaking group, and were the ancestors of the Somalis and Afars

    Many people in and out of Ethiopia belong to this elongated type of Africans.

    Some of them are the following :

    1. The Tutsi of Rwanda and Burundi ;
    2. The Hima of Uganda ;
    3. The Masaai of Kenya and Tanzania ;
    4. Horners (Somali, Afar, Beja, etc) ;
    5. The Fulani of West, Central and East Africa.

    Dinka are sometimes noted for their height. With the Tutsi of Rwanda, they are believed to be the tallest people in Africa.

    3All ye inhabitants of the world, and dwellers on the earth, see ye, when he lifteth up an ensign on the mountains; and when he bloweth a trumpet, hear ye.

    Render: when a signal is lifted up … when a trumpet is blown. Cf. ch. Isaiah 13:2. Since the whole process is supernatural it is idle to enquire what the “signal” and “trumpet” signify. The verse is simply a summons to be prepared for the moment of Jehovah’s decisive intervention.

    4For so the LORD said unto me, I will take my rest, and I will consider in my dwelling place like a clear heat upon herbs, and like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest.

    5For afore the harvest, when the bud is perfect, and the sour grape is ripening in the flower, he shall both cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks, and take away and cut down the branches.

    YHWH basically says… Watch for this… I’m sitting back… If they try something… I’ll end them. (Extremely paraphrased)

    We have here the declaration made to the other people of the world, to expect the fall of the Assyrian. God invites all the people of the earth to this sight; that, as soon as they should observe the sign appointed by God,… they should attend to the execution of this divine judgment. Benson Commentary

    He was proven correct; around 701 B.C.E., the new Assyrian King Sennacherib (704–681 B.C.E.) led a powerful invasion force to suppress Judah’s revolt. The prism stone of Sennacherib, which details the king’s triumphs, states that “as for Hezekiah (ha-za-qi-a-u), he did not submit to my yoke.” The Assyrian juggernaut, propelled by scores of chariots, rams, and siege engines, proved unstoppable. “King Sennacherib of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and captured them,” the second Book of Kings notes regretfully (II Kings 18:13).In panic, Hezekiah turned to Isaiah. What should he do? Do nothing, replied Isaiah; “by the way that he came, by the same he shall return; he shall not come into this city” (II Kings 19:33). And indeed, Sennacherib’s siege of Jerusalem failed.The second Book of Kings explains that “the angel of the Lord set out and struck down” 185,000 soldiers in the Assyrian camp (II Kings 19:35). Scholars have interpreted this as an indication that Sennacherib’s soldiers must have contracted some kind of disease. Whatever the case may be, the siege was lifted, and Sennacherib returned to Assyria. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/people-in-the-bible/isaiah-prophet-counselor-saved-temple/

    6They shall be left together unto the fowls of the mountains, and to the beasts of the earth: and the fowls shall summer upon them, and all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them.

    7In that time shall the present be brought unto the LORD of hosts of a people scattered and peeled, and from a people terrible from their beginning hitherto; a nation meted out and trodden under foot, whose land the rivers have spoiled, to the place of the name of the LORD of hosts, the mount Zion.

    Ebed-Melech (Hebrew: עֶבֶד-מֶלֶךְ‎ ‘Eḇeḏmeleḵ; Latin: Abdemelech) is mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah chapter 38 as an Ethiopian official at the palace of king Zedekiah of Judah during the Siege of Jerusalem (597 BCE). The name is translated as Servant of the King, and as such may not be his proper name but a royal title. The text relates that he was a Cushite[Jeremiah 38:7] and was possibly an adviser/counsel-at-court to the king given his ability to convince the king to release Jeremiah.[Jeremiah 38:8]

    Daniel said…

    Daniel’s Vision of the Four Beasts
    (Revelation 13:1–10)

    1In the first year of the reign of Belshazzar over Babylon, Daniel had a dream, and visions passed through his mind as he lay on his bed. He wrote down the dream, and this is the summary of his account.


    Belshazzar was the eldest son of Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian empire, and regent for his father during the latter’s prolonged absence from the city. He may have been killed when Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 BCE

    2Daniel declared: “In my vision in the night I looked, and suddenly the four winds of heaven were churning up the great sea.a 3Then four great beasts came up out of the sea, each one different from the others:

    4The first beast was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle. I watched until its wings were torn off and it was lifted up from the ground and made to stand on two feet like a man, and given the mind of a man.

    The lion (red on yellow background) is the symbol of Scotland. Three lions are the symbol for England. Lions became the arms of the Duchy of Normandy and these have been assigned as ares to William l, ll, Henry l & ll.  – it became associated with the royal family after the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II. The Lion derived from the coat of arms of the Duchy of Aquitaine – Eleanor’s family. Naturally, of course, the Lion as a symbol of British “pride” and might was forever identified with Eleanor’s irascible, irresponsible but fearless son, Richard I the Lionheart.

    Great Britain came into being officially in 1707. Great Britain was once the major world power, having power over 1/5 of the world’s population. At their height, they were the largest empire in the world and held power for over 100 years. 

    The Founding Fathers made an appropriate choice when they selected the bald eagle as the emblem of the United States. The fierce beauty and proud independence of this great bird aptly symbolizes the strength and freedom of America.

    The United States separated from Great Britain about 250 years ago in 1776. The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782, a symbol of pride and strength that earned it a place on the seal of the United States. The wings torn off.

    5Suddenly another beast appeared, which looked like a bear. It was raised up on one of its sides, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. So it was told, ‘Get up and gorge yourself on flesh!’

    The official symbol of Russia today is a double-headed eagle (the one depicted on the Russian national emblem).

    Russia is well known for its ability to devour much flesh as leaders like Lenin and Stalin killed several million people. The bear is raised up on one side with three ribs in its mouth. These three ribs may be the nations the final end-time Russia will conquer in an attempt to gain back former Soviet republics that it once held, such as Ukraine and two unknown others. So we can predict that Russia is on the move to take two more former Soviet republics which will cause a great deal of tension with the West

    6Next, as I watched, another beast appeared. It was like a leopard, and on its back it had four wings like those of a bird. The beast also had four heads, and it was given authority to rule.

    I don’t think the leopard exists yet. I think it only appears after the meteor hits earth. Though the beginning of it is visible.Some have speculated that it is Germany. But…

    The four bound angels as powers of the world

    The longest waterway in Western Asia, the Euphrates runs 1,700 miles from the mountains of eastern Turkey to the Persian Gulf. It winds through Iraq for 660 miles. From the Syrian border to the Haditha Dam, a nearly 100-mile stretch,

    7After this, as I watched in my vision in the night, suddenly a fourth beast appeared, and it was terrifying—dreadful and extremely strong—with large iron teeth. It devoured and crushed; then it trampled underfoot whatever was left. It was different from all the beasts before it, and it had ten horns. 8While I was contemplating the horns, suddenly another horn, a little one, came up among them, and three of the first horns were uprooted before it. This horn had eyes like those of a man and a mouth that spoke words of arrogance.

    As in the days of Noah?

    These are the seven messages of the Creator of the world to humanity known as the Seven Noahide Laws:

    Belief in God: He who created everything. There is none besides Him and no one should turn away from Him.

    Blessing Hashem (God, literally ‘the name’): Respecting the Creator and the sages who are familiar with His Torah, and respecting the places of worship where the Torah is learned and prayers are recited to him. It is forbidden, God forbid, to speak harshly against them or to curse them.

    Stealing: The preservation of the rights of others to property and honor and body and not to desire to take anything belonging to others that is not for sale.

    Laws: To establish courts to judge justice and to direct society and obey the orders and decisions of the courts.

    Killing: Do not shorten the lives of people, including the lives of the terminally ill. The opposite is also true; to invest efforts to heal diseases and maintain health.

    Have mercy on creatures: Not to be cruel to animals. One of the most forbidden acts is eating the organ or limb from a live animal. The animal must first be killed in a way that is less distressing such as cutting the neck.

    Prohibition of prostitution: The mitzvah (Bible commandment) to build a proper family life. It is a severe prohibition to commit adultery with a married woman. It is also forbidden to perform a same-sex marriage. Also forbidden is sexual intercourse with animals and homosexuality.

    Therefore, anyone who receives upon himself all of these seven rules in front of a rabbinic court has a special status in Judaism. Even though they are not Jewish, they have entered into a full partnership in the service of God.


    This psalm 118 is the last in the series of the Egyptian hallel, it is read in full the days of recitation of the hallel, the last ten verses are even read twice.

    • Is one of six psalms (113-118) of which Hallel is composed. On all days when Hallel is recited, this psalm is recited in its entirety, with the final ten verses being recited twice each.

    Our word hallelujah comes from the Hebrew words hallel (praise) and yah (Yahweh or God or the Lord), so it means “praise the Lord.”


    Psalm 118:1-29THIS is unmistakably a psalm for use in the Temple worship, and probably meant to be sung antiphonally, on some day of national rejoicing (Psalm 118:24)
    The psalm implies the completion of the Temple, and therefore shuts out any point prior to that.
    In the book Ezra 3:10-11 , we read that “when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the Lord, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise he Lord, after the ordinance of David king of Israel. And they sang together by course in praising and giving thanks unto the Lord; because he is good, for his mercy endureth for ever toward Israel. And all the people shouted with a great shout, when they praised the Lord, because the foundation of the house of the Lord was laid.” Now the words mentioned in Ezra are the first and last sentences of this Psalm, and we therefore conclude that the people chanted the whole of this sublime song; and, moreover, that the use of this composition on such occasions was ordained by David, whom we conceive to be its author.

    , “I believe that I can say with certainty, Psalm 118:1-29 was sung for the first time at the Feast of Tabernacles in the year 444 B.C.” Cheyne follows his usual guides in pointing to the purification and reconstruction of the Temple by Judas Maccabaeus

    Psalm 118

    Give thanks to the LORD, for He is good;

    His loving devotion endures forever.

    2Let Israel say,

    “His loving devotion endures forever.”

    3Let the house of Aaron say,

    “His loving devotion endures forever.”

    4Let those who fear the LORD say,

    “His loving devotion endures forever.”

    5In my distress I called to the LORD,

    and He answered and set me free.

    6The LORD is with me;a I will not be afraid.

    What can man do to me?

    7The LORD is with me; He is my helper.

    Therefore I will look in triumph on those who hate me.

    8It is better to take refuge in the LORD

    than to trust in man.

    9It is better to take refuge in the LORD

    than to trust in princes.

    10All the nations surrounded me;

    in the name of the LORD I will surely cut them off.

    11They surrounded me, yes, they surrounded me;

    in the name of the LORD I will surely cut them off.

    12They swarmed around me like bees;

    they were extinguished like a fire of thorns;

    in the name of the LORD I will surely cut them off.

    13I was pushed so hard I was falling,

    but the LORD helped me.

    14The LORD is my strength and my song,

    and He has become my salvation.

    15Shouts of joy and salvation resound in the tents of the righteous:

    “The right hand of the LORD performs with valor!

    16The right hand of the LORD is exalted!

    The right hand of the LORD performs with valor!”

    17I will not die, but I will live

    and proclaim what the LORD has done.

    18The LORD disciplined me severely,

    but He has not given me over to death.

    19Open to me the gates of righteousness;

    I will enter and give thanks to the LORD.

    20This is the gate of the LORD;

    the righteous shall enter through it.

    21I will give You thanks, for You have answered me,

    and You have become my salvation.

    22The stone the builders rejected

    has become the cornerstone.b

    23This is from the LORD,

    and it is marvelous in our eyes.

    24This is the day that the LORD has made;

    we will rejoice and be glad in it.

    25O LORD, save us, we pray.

    We beseech You, O LORD, cause us to prosper!

    more probable which supposes that it was sung on the great celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles, recorded in Nehemiah 8:14-18. In later times Psalm 118:25 was the festal cry raised while the altar of burnt offering was solemnly compassed, once on each of the first six days of the Feast of Tabernacles, and seven times on the seventh

    26Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD.

    This Psalm was quoted by Jesus and writers of the New Testament. In Matthew 21:42, Jesus said to them (the chief priests and the elders of the people), “Have you never read in the Scriptures: “‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; this was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?” Opposition and difficulties are seen in this Psalm but in the midst of it God will display His salvation. This verse is also referred to in Mark 12:10, Luke 20:17, Acts 4:11, and 1 Peter 2:7.

    In Matthew 21:9, Mark 11:9-10 and John 12:13, Jesus is welcomed on his triumphal entry into Jerusalem by crowds quoting verse 26:

    From the house of the LORD we bless you.

    27The LORD is God

    and has made His light shine upon us.

    Bind the festival sacrifice with cords

    to the horns of the altar.

    28You are my God, and I will give You thanks.

    You are my God, and I will exalt You.

    29Give thanks to the LORD, for He is good;

    His loving devotion endures forever.

    three classes are called on: the whole house of Israel, the priests, and “those who fear Jehovah”-i.e., aliens who have taken refuge beneath the wings of Israel’s God. The threefold designation expresses the thrill of joy in the recovery of national life; the high estimate of the priesthood as the only remaining God-appointed order, now that the monarchy was swept away; and the growing desire to draw the nations into the community of God’s people.


    The name “feast of booths” derives from the requirement for everyone born an Israelite to live in booths made of boughs of trees and branches of palm trees for the 7 days of the feast (Lv 23:42) (Freeman, 1996:1148). Another name for it is “the feast of ingathering” because it was celebrated by the Israelites at the time of the ingathering of the harvests on the threshing floor and at the wine press (Dt 16:13; Lv 23:39) at the end of the year (Ex 23:16; 34:22).

    In Ex 23 the Feast of Sukkot is closely associated with the Feast of Ingathering. In Lv 23 it is depicted as a cheerful occasion and the stay in the wilderness motivates the dwelling in tents/booths (De Vaux, 1978:496). A more detailed account is given in Dt 16, where the festival is called Feast of Sukkot and is to last seven days. In 1 Ki 8 the dedication of Solomon’s temple takes place during this festival. In Zch 14, Zechariah predicts that all the nations will each year come to worship Yahweh in Jerusalem, at the Feast of Sukkot (Zch 14:16).

    The Sanhedrin is the re-creation of the ancient legal council that advised in Israel during biblical times. It earlier invited Arab nations to prepare for their role in the construction of a Third Temple.

    They were invited as “sons of Ishmael.” Ishmael, in the Bible, is the first son of Abraham, by his wife’s maid, Hagar. Abraham is the patriarch of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Isaac was the second son, and Judaism and Christianity trace roots through him. Islam claims its heritage through Ishmael.

    The newest move will include during Hanukkah a full-dress reenactment of the daily offering.

    Sons of God

    Genesis 6:2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were


    Genesis 6:4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days–and also

    Luke 20:36 and they can no longer die; for they are like the


    Romans 8:19 For the creation waits in eager expectation for the

    Job 2:1 On another day the angels came to present themselves


    Job 1:6 One day the angels came to present themselves before the

    Job 38:7 while the morning stars sang together and all the angels

    Matthew 5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called

    1 John 3:1 See what great love the Father has lavished on us, that

    Philippians 2:15 so that you may become blameless and pure

    John 1:12 Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in

    The Destruction of Tyre

    Although the Phoenicians became successful merchants, they could be ruthless. Reportedly, they sometimes lured people aboard ship on the pretense of showing them their wares, only to enslave them. In time, they even turned on their former trading partners, the Israelites, and sold them into slavery. Hence, Hebrew prophets predicted the destruction of the Phoenician city of Tyre. These prophecies were finally fulfilled by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.E. (Joel 3:6; Amos 1:9, 10) This destruction marked the end of the Phoenician era.

    Isaiah 23 & Ezekiel 27

    1The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them.

    2Be still, ye inhabitants of the isle; thou whom the merchants of Zidon, that pass over the sea, have replenished.

    3And by great waters the seed of Sihor, the harvest of the river, is her revenue; and she is a mart of nations.

    4Be thou ashamed, O Zidon: for the sea hath spoken, even the strength of the sea, saying, I travail not, nor bring forth children, neither do I nourish up young men, nor bring up virgins.

    5As at the report concerning Egypt, so shall they be sorely pained at the report of Tyre.

    6Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, ye inhabitants of the isle.

    7Is this your joyous city, whose antiquity is of ancient days? her own feet shall carry her afar off to sojourn.

    8Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning city, whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers are the honourable of the earth?

    9The LORD of hosts hath purposed it, to stain the pride of all glory, and to bring into contempt all the honourable of the earth.

    10Pass through thy land as a river, O daughter of Tarshishthere is no more strength.

    11He stretched out his hand over the sea, he shook the kingdoms: the LORD hath given a commandment against the merchant city, to destroy the strong holds thereof.


    26Thy rowers have brought thee into great waters: the east wind hath broken thee in the midst of the seas.

    27Thy riches, and thy fairs, thy merchandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, thy calkers, and the occupiers of thy merchandise, and all thy men of war, that are in thee, and in all thy company which is in the midst of thee, shall fall into the midst of the seas in the day of thy ruin.

    28The suburbs shall shake at the sound of the cry of thy pilots.

    29And all that handle the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the land;

    30And shall cause their voice to be heard against thee, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cast up dust upon their heads, they shall wallow themselves in the ashes:

    31And they shall make themselves utterly bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloth, and they shall weep for thee with bitterness of heart and bitter wailing.

    32And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, saying, What city is like Tyrus, like the destroyed in the midst of the sea?

    33When thy wares went forth out of the seas, thou filledst many people; thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with the multitude of thy riches and of thy merchandise.

    34In the time when thou shalt be broken by the seas in the depths of the waters thy merchandise and all thy company in the midst of thee shall fall.

    35All the inhabitants of the isles shall be astonished at thee, and their kings shall be sore afraid, they shall be troubled in their countenance.

    36The merchants among the people shall hiss at thee; thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt be any more.